Organizzatori (Organisers)

The Organisers behind the Eurovision Song Contest

(en) OrganisersThe Eurovision Song Contest is organised yearly by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), together with a Host Broadcaster and around 40 Participating Broadcasters.

The Contest is overseen by the Reference Group on behalf of the Participating Broadcasters, and each Participating Broadcaster is represented by a Head of Delegation.

The Eurovision Song Contest is organized by the European Broadcasting Union, the world’s foremost alliance of public service media, representing 117 member organizations in 56 countries and an additional 34 Associates in Asia, Africa, Australasia and the Americas.

European Broadcasting Union (EBU)Established in 1950 and also known in French as Union Européenne de Radio-télévision (UER), the EBU is the world’s leading alliance of public service media.

The European Broadcasting Union has 112 member organisations in 56 countries and an additional 31 Associates in Asia, Africa, Australasia and the Americas. Members operate nearly 2,000 television, radio and online channels and services, and offer a wealth of content across other platforms.

For the Eurovision Song Contest, the EBU supports and supervises the work of the Host Broadcaster and is the central point of contact of all Participating Broadcasters. Together with its Partners, the EBU is centrally dealing with all matters related to the brand, international marketing activities, rights management, voting, communications and online activities.

You can find out more about the EBU on their website.

(en) Supervisori esecutivi. Dal 1964 il voto viene controllato da uno scrutatore nominato dall’UER. Lo scrutatore deve controllare che tutti i punti vengano assegnati correttamente.

Nella seguente tabella ci sono gli scrutatori e i supervisori esecutivi dell’Eurovision Song Contest nominati dall’UER:

Nome Nazione Anni
Rolf Liebermann Bandiera della Svizzera Svizzera 1956-1963
Miroslav Vilček Bandiera della Jugoslavia Jugoslavia 1964-1965
Clifford Brown Bandiera del Regno Unito Regno Unito 1966-1977
Frank Naef Bandiera della Svizzera Svizzera 1978-1992
Christian Clausen Bandiera della Danimarca Danimarca 1993-1995
Marie-Claire Vionnet Bandiera della Francia Francia 1996-1997
Christine Marchal-Ortiz 1998-2002
Sarah Yuen Bandiera del Regno Unito Regno Unito 2003
Svante Stockselius Bandiera della Svezia Svezia 2004-2010
Jon Ola Sand Bandiera della Norvegia Norvegia 2011-2019[s 1]
Martin Österdahl Bandiera della Svezia Svezia 2021-presente
  1. [s 1] L’edizione 2020, che sarebbe dovuta essere l’ultima con Sand nel ruolo di supervisore esecutivo, è stata successivamente cancellata. Al suo posto è stato trasmesso lo speciale Eurovision: Europe Shine a Light, a cui Sand ha ricoperto per l’ultima volta il ruolo di supervisore esecutivo.

Executive Supervisor: The Executive Supervisor oversees the preparation and organisation of the Eurovision Song Contest on behalf of the EBU. Together with their team, they provide the main point of contact for over 40 participating EBU Members and are in charge of the operation on their behalf, ensuring the Contest is delivered annually by the Host Broadcaster in accordance with the Contest rules.

Martin Österdahl at the Eurovision Song Contest 2022 Grand Final

The current Executive Supervisor is Martin Österdahl, a senior television executive with over 20 years of experience.

Martin was the Executive Producer for the Eurovision Song Contest in 2013 and 2016 when the Contest was hosted by Swedish EBU Member SVT in Malmö and Stockholm respectively.

Reference Group: The Reference Group was established in 1998 and is the executive committee tasked with overseeing the organisation of the Eurovision Song Contest on behalf of Participating Broadcasters.

As of July 2022, the Reference Group includes:

Chairperson. Frank-Dieter Freiling (ZDF)

Members. Sietse Bakker (NPO), Felix Bergsson (RÚV), Carla Bugalho (RTP), Astrid Dutrenit (NPO), Simona Martorelli (RAI), David Tserunyan (AMPTV), Martin Österdahl (EBU)

The Reference Group is established by the EBU Television Committee and its tasks are:

  • Approving the development and future format of the Eurovision Song Contest
  • Securing the financing of the Eurovision Song Contest
  • Modernising the brand and raising awareness of the Eurovision Song Contest
  • Overseeing the yearly preparation by the Host Broadcaster

The Reference Group meets four to five times each year on behalf of all Participating Broadcasters, and is required to take decisions in the general interest of the Contest.

The Reference Group is composed of the following members :

  • The Chairperson
  • Three elected members from among the Heads of Delegations
  • Two Executive Producers from previous host countries, as well as the Executive Producer of the current Host Broadcaster
  • Up to two invited members based on competence and experience
  • The EBU Eurovision Song Contest Executive Supervisor

You can read more about the Reference Group on the EBU website.

Host Broadcaster. The Eurovision Song Contest is usually organised by the national public broadcaster of the country that won the year before (with some notable exceptions). In 2022 the Host Broadcaster was Rai from Italy.

For the Host Broadcaster, organising the Contest is an unprecedented but exciting challenge which includes working closely with the Host City and appointing a domestic Executive Producer who can oversee and manage operations.

Participanting Broadcaster: The Participating Broadcasters are…. the broadcasters participating in the Eurovision Song Contest of any given year!

The list changes from year to year as broadcasters debut, leave and rejoin the Contest, but it usually comprises around 40 competing delegations.

Participating Broadcasters work hard to prepare acts that will qualify from the show’s Semi-Finals, hoping for a ticket to the Saturday night Grand Final where they will join the so-called ‘Big Five’ broadcasters.

The Big Five are the Participating Broadcasters from France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom – the group of countries who via their broadcasters make the biggest financial contribution towards the organisation of the Contest.

Heads of Delegation (HoD)Each Participating Broadcaster taking part in the Eurovision Song Contest must appoint a Head of Delegation (HoD). This person is the European Broadcasting Union’s contact point and leader of their country’s delegation at the Contest.

A delegation, managed by the Head of Delegation, also includes a Head of Press (HoP), the artists, songwriters, composers, backing vocalists and, of course, the artist’s entourage. The size of a delegation can vary greatly.

Traditionally, the HoDs meet in March before the Contest to discuss and learn about the upcoming event. 

FAQ. Here are the most evergreen Frequently Asked Questions regarding the Eurovision Song Contest.

Why is Australia in the Eurovision Song Contest? The Eurovision Song Contest has been broadcast in Australia for more than 30 years. The Australian broadcaster SBS is an Associate Member of the EBU and in 2015, to mark the 60th Eurovision Song Contest, was invited to submit an entry. In 2016 the broadcaster requested to take part in the Eurovision Song Contest again. The Reference Group, the governing body of the Eurovision Song Contest, voted unanimously in favour of Australia’s participation in 2016, 2017 and 2018 respectively. In February 2019, it was announced that Australia has secured participation as a competitor at the Eurovision Song Contest until 2023. It is yet to be decided whether Australia will become a permanent participant in the contest.

How can I participate as an artist in the Eurovision Song Contest? All entries to the Eurovision Song Contest are selected by the Participating Broadcasters. These are the Member Broadcasters of the EBU that take part in the Eurovision Song Contest. Some select their respective entry internally, while others organise public national selections. For more information about how to represent your country, we recommend you contact your national public broadcaster. Read more: How to take part in the Eurovision Song Contest? 

In the lead up to the Eurovision Song Contest, national selections take place in the represented countries. These national selections are being organized by the respective national public broadcasters who are Active Members of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU). In the United Kingdom, the BBC is taking care of the national selection, in Sweden it’s SVT, in Germany it’s NDR, etc.

Good to know

  • First of all, it is important to know that the EBU is not involved in the national selections. It is entirely up to the participating broadcasters to decide how they pick their entry. However, the EBU does demand full transparency on the chosen procedure
  • In most countries, televised national selections take place, and usually anyone can send in songs. A selection committee then picks the songs that will take part in the national selection, and a jury or viewers (or a mix of both) decide upon the winner
  • Some broadcasters pick their entry for the Eurovision Song Contest internally. A selection committee then picks the representing artists, and sometimes also the song to be performed

Sending in your song

To take part in the Eurovision Song Contest, you need to win a national selection or be selected by one of the participating broadcasters. Everything starts with sending in your song!

  • To find out how to represent your own country in the Eurovision Song Contest, keep an eye on announcements made by your national public broadcaster. Usually, these announcements are made available through their website, and include details on how to send in your song
  • To find out how to represent another country in the Eurovision Song Contest, keep an eye on announcements made by other national public broadcasters. Usually, these announcements are made available through their websites, and include details on how to send in your song. Note that not all broadcasters accept songs from foreign artists, songwriters and composers
  • If there is no public broadcaster in your country taking part in the Eurovision Song Contest, it is not possible to represent your country. To take part in the Eurovision Song Contest, you would have to enter your song for nomination in another country. Should you be selected to take part in the Eurovision Song Contest, you will then of course represent the respective country

Note that most broadcasters set their deadlines to submit songs somewhere between September and December.

If you sent in your song, the respective public broadcaster will inform you whether you have been selected for the national final, or not. From there, everything speaks for itself; you will have to win the national selection to represent the respective country at the Eurovision Song Contest.

Can you help? No, we cannot help you. The EBU does not keep a record of submission deadlines and national selection rules of the respective participating countries. For questions about national selections, please contact the respective public broadcaster.

To Europe’s greatest artists, upcoming stars and hidden talents; good luck! We are looking forward to see the best of you at the Eurovision Song Contest.

Who pays for the Eurovision Song Contest? The Eurovision Song Contest is a non-profit event, mostly financed by:

  • Contributions from the Participating Broadcasters (the so-called participation fee). This fee is different for each country based on the solidarity principle that the strongest shoulders carry the most weight. It is at the sole discretion of each Participating Broadcaster to decide if they wish to make public the financial details of their participation
  • A contribution from the Host Broadcaster, which is generally between €10 and €20 million, depending on local circumstances and available resources
  • A contribution from the Host City, either financially or ‘in kind’ (e.g. covering expenses of city branding, side events, security, etc.)
  • Commercial revenue from sponsorship agreements, ticket sales, televoting and merchandise, which varies from year to year

On average, over 90% of all available funds are being earmarked for the TV production and event organisation. Approximately 5% of available funds represent the budget for the EBU’s Eurovision Song Contest team and its partners. Any remaining funds are being reimbursed to the Participating Broadcasters, for as long local legislation allows such reimbursement. The budget is overlooked and approved by the Reference Group, on behalf of all Participating Broadcasters, on an annual basis.

Who organises the Eurovision Song Contest? The Eurovision Song Contest is an annual event organised under the auspices of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), the largest union of public service media in the world. The EBU co-produces the Eurovision Song Contest together with its Member Broadcasters, most notably the public broadcaster of the preceding winning country, the Host Broadcaster.

Did the voting change for the Eurovision Song Contest 2019? No, the actual voting did not change. However, there was a change in the presentation of the votes. The order in which the televoting results were revealed were determined by the ranking of the jury result. The announcement of the televoting results now starts with the country receiving the fewest points from the juries and ends with the country that received the highest points from the juries. The presenters then announce the total number of televotes received for each song across all participating countries. Read more about voting.

How can I vote for my favourite Eurovision song? You can vote for your favourite Eurovision song via the app, phone and SMS (via details on screen), and

Full details concerning the voting rules and procedures for Liverpool 2023 can be found here.

Voting from Participating Countries. Viewers are able to cast their votes via the official Eurovision Song Contest app (or by following instructions on screen) during the live Semi-Finals and Grand Final. The app is available for your iOS, Android or Windows device, and if you vote via the app you will receive a special video message from your favourite artists.

In addition, those watching in participating countries can vote by telephone and/or SMS. Relevant numbers will be displayed on screen by each participating broadcaster and on

Voting Numbers. The below table has all the information you need to vote from your Participating Country, as well as the cost:

Voting from non-Participating Countries. For the very first time, viewers watching in eligible countries not participating in this year’s competition will also be able to vote in each Semi-Final and the Grand Final. 

All viewers in non-participating countries can vote using the official Eurovision App or go directly to – the new voting hub for the Eurovision Song Contest. Both App and website will provide the correct voting method for all eligible countries automatically. 

How can the Rest of the World vote at the Eurovision Song Contest 2023? Members of the public watching the Eurovision Song Contest in the Rest of the World, i.e. outside the countries participating in the ESC may vote for songs participating in the ESC 2023 by casting their votes online via the website or use the link provided by the ESC App.

How does the voting platform work? During the voting window in each Semi-Final and in the Grand Final, if you are located in a non-participating country you will be able to select multiple songs on and cast multiple votes on any individual song up to a maximum of 20 votes in total. You will then be taken to a payment screen where you can select your payment method for the number of votes cast.

When can I vote? You can vote after all the songs have been performed in each of the live broadcasts of the Semi-Finals and Grand Final for a limited period of time. The hosts of the show will indicate when the voting period opens and closes. Any votes cast outside the voting window during the live shows will not be counted but you may be charged.

How many times can I vote? You can cast up to a maximum of 20 votes, but you may use a payment method only once per Live Show.

How much does one vote cost? Each individual vote costs 0.99 Euros (including any VAT or sales tax) and can be paid by the payment methods offered in the Voting Platform. 

Please note that the transaction will be operated between you and the payment provider that is in charge of processing the payment in the country from where you vote.

What happens if I try to vote more than once with the same payment card? If you cast fewer than 20 votes with the first transaction, you will not be able to cast additional votes afterwards in the same Live Show using the same card.  Any additional transaction attempts with the same payment card number will be rejected.

Can I vote by SMS or phone in a non-participating country? No. Only on the platform

How will you know which country I am voting from? Your location will be identified by means of a unique identifier based on your payment method.

Can I use a payment method (e.g. credit card) issued in a participating country if I am voting from a different country? No, Your payment method must be issued by a bank in a country outside of the participating countries of the ESC 2023. If your card was issued in a country participating in the ESC 2023, the transaction will be rejected, and the votes will not be taken into consideration.

Which countries are eligible to vote? You can vote on with any valid payment method in any country that is not participating in the 2023 Eurovision Song Contest. If your card was issued in a country where payments cannot be processed by payment providers due to legal or other regulatory reasons, the transaction will be rejected, and the votes will not be taken into consideration.

Can I vote if I am under the age of 18? If you are under 18 years of age, you are not permitted to cast a vote without the permission of your parent(s) or guardian(s).

How will my votes count towards the results of the Contest? All votes cast in non-participating countries on will be aggregated and the Top 10 favourite songs from the Rest of the World in each Semi-Final and the Grand Final will be awarded 12 points for the popular song, 10 points for the second and then 8 to 1 points.

This set of points will count as one additional country in each of the live shows.

Why is Kosovo not participating in the Eurovision Song Contest? Kosovo cannot take part in the Eurovision Song Contest because their public broadcaster is not a Member of the EBU. The statutes of the EBU say that a Member must come from a country that is a Member of the International Telecommunications Union or is a Member of the Council of Europe. Kosovo is in neither. The EBU helped set up Kosovo’s public service broadcaster RTK in 1999 and it continues to work closely with RTK to protect public service media in Kosovo.

Can I get access to the Eurovision Song Contest physical archive for the purpose of a thesis? The Eurovision Song Contest physical archive is safely stored at the EBU’s headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. In principle, the archive is not open to the public. Exceptions may be made on a case-by-case basis and are at the EBU’s sole discretion.

Public enquiries, questions and suggestions can be sent to Media enquiries can be sent to