Unsuccessful attempts to participate: There have been several unsuccessful attempts to participate in the Eurovision Song Contest. For broadcasters to participate, they must be member of the EBU and register their intention to compete before the deadline specified in the rules of that year’s event. Each participating broadcaster pays a fee towards the organisation of the contest. Should a country withdraw from the contest after the deadline, they will still need to pay these fees, and may also incur a fine or temporary ban.
Catalonia (TVC): Since 2013, Television of Catalonia fulfils the requirements to be an active member of the EBU. According to articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Statutes and annexes 2 and 5 of the Admission Criteria, Television of Catalonia is a European public audiovisual broadcaster from a country (Spain) that is a member of the International Telecommunication Union and has a “national character” because it represents and offers full coverage to a specific political and cultural community (Catalonia) of a plurilingual State (Spain). In this sense, Television of Catalonia requested in the summer of 2017 at the General Assembly of the EBU in Dublin its membership as a full member. The EBU will resolve the Catalan application at the beginning of 2019 and RTVE could veto its entry into this organisation.
China (Hunan TV): China aired the Eurovision Song Contest 2015 and then Chinese provincial television channel Hunan Television had confirmed its interest in participating in the Eurovision Song Contest 2016. The EBU had responded saying “we are open and are always looking for new elements in each Eurovision Song Contest”. However, on 3 June 2015, the EBU denied that China would participate as a guest or full participant in 2016.
During the Chinese broadcast of the first 2018 semi-final on Mango TV, both Albania and Ireland were edited out of the show, along with their snippets in the recap of all 19 entries. Albania was skipped due to a ban on television performers displaying tattoos that took effect in January 2018 while Ireland was censored due to its representation of a homosexual couple on-stage. In addition, the LGBT flag and tattoos on other performers were also blurred out from the broadcast. As a result, the EBU has terminated its partnership with Mango TV, citing that censorship “is not in line with the EBU’s values of universality and inclusivity and its proud tradition of celebrating diversity through music,” which led to a ban on televising the second semi-final and the grand final in the country. A spokesperson for the broadcaster’s parent company Hunan TV said they “weren’t aware” of the edits made to the programme.
Faroe Islands (KVP): Since 2010, the Faroese national broadcaster Kringvarp Føroya (KVF) has been attempting to gain EBU membership and thus participate independently in the Eurovision Song Contest. However KVF cannot obtain EBU membership due to the islands being a constituent part of the Kingdom of Denmark as determined by the unity of the Realm.
In late 2018, the Faroese national broadcaster Kringvarp Føroya showed renewed interest in joining the European Broadcasting Union and participating in the Eurovision Song Contest. According to the broadcaster, they are not excluded by the rule that only independent nations can join, and as a result the Faroese broadcaster started internal discussions on applying for the EBU membership and participating in the Eurovision Song Contest and even hosting a national final similar to the Dansk Melodi Grand Prix.
Gibraltar (GBC): Since 2006, the Gibraltarian national broadcaster Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) has been attempting to gain EBU membership and thus participate independently in the Eurovision Song Contest. However GBC cannot obtain EBU membership due to the British Overseas Territory not being independent from the United Kingdom. Gibraltar has broadcast the Eurovision Song Contest 2008 and the final of the 2006 edition.
Greenland (KNR): Since 2011, the Greenlandic national broadcaster Kalaallit Nunaata Radioa (KNR) has attempted to gain EBU membership and thus participate independently in the Eurovision Song Contest. However KNR cannot obtain EBU membership due to the autonomous country not being independent from the Kingdom of Denmark. Greenland has broadcast the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 on tape delay. On 4 May 2017, it was announced that Greenland would broadcast the 2017 contest final on delay.
Kazakhstan (K-1): Kazakhstan has not participated in the Eurovision Song Contest yet. Kazakhstan is negotiating to join the European Broadcasting Union. The state television company (K-1) has been hoping for pending or approved EBU membership since 2008. If this happens, they may be eligible to compete in the Eurovision Song Contest. Nevertheless, they have broadcast the Eurovision Song Contests from 2010 onwards. However, according to the EBU, no Kazakh broadcaster has ever formally applied to join the EBU.
On 18 December 2015, it was announced that Khabar Agency, a major media outlet in Kazakhstan, had been accepted into the EBU as an Associate member, but were still not eligible to take part in the contest under the current rules. Only countries who are part of the European Broadcasting Area are eligible to participate, with Australia being the only exception after being an associate member for over 30 years.
On 22 December 2017, Channel 31 announced that they plan to debut in the 2019 contest, due to their newfound EBU membership.
They debuted at the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2018 alongside Wales, placing sixth. On 30 July 2018, the EBU stated that the decision to invite Kazakhstan was made solely by the Junior Eurovision reference group, and there were no current plans to invite associate members other than Australia.
On 22 November 2018, Jon Ola Sand said in a press conference that “we need to discuss if we can invite our associate member Kazakhstan to take part in adult ESC in the future, but this is part of a broader discussion in the EBU and I hope we can get back to you on this issue later.” However, shortly after he clarified that they would not have an entry in the 2019 edition.
Kosovo (RTK): Kosovo has never participated in the Eurovision Song Contest on its own, but the contest has had a long history within the country which has broadcast it since 1961, and after the start of Kosovo’s UN administration, the Kosovan public broadcaster RTK has been independently licensed by the EBU to broadcast all three shows. Despite not having participated at the song contest, Kosovo did participate in the Eurovision Young Dancers 2011.
RTK can formally apply to become a member of the EBU, once Kosovo becomes a member of the International Telecommunications Union, as defined by the EBU rules. The EBU will vote on full membership of the Kosovar broadcaster in June 2019, possibly allowing the country to debut in 2020, or in the near future after that.
• History and interest: Jugovizija, the national pre-selection of Yugoslavia organized by the Yugoslav broadcaster Yugoslav Radio Television(JRT) since 1961 and it featured entries submitted by the subnational public broadcasting centres based in the capitals of each of the constituent republics and autonomous provinces. Each of them had its own regional jury. SAP Kosovowas represented by RTV Priština, but their entry has never won. Jugovizija 1986 was organized by RTV Priština. Before 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence, Viktorija a singer from Vučitrn represented Yugoslavia as part of Aska in 1982 and Nevena Božović from Mitrovica represented Serbia in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2007. After the breakup of Yugoslavia, numerous Kosovo Albanian singers participated at the Festivali i Këngës which is the Albanian national selection for Eurovision organized by RTSH. The most notable participants to date were Rona Nishliu who represented Albania in the Eurovision 2012 and Lindita who represented Albania in the Eurovision 2017. Some singers, especially Kosovo Serbs, participate in Serbian national selection organized by RTS. Nevena Božović also represented Serbia, as member of Moje 3, in the Eurovision Song Contest 2013, and as a solo artist in the Eurovision Song Contest 2019.
After Kosovo’s declaration of independence from Serbia in 2008, its broadcaster Radio Television of Kosovo (RTK) applied for EBU membership, and wished to enter Kosovo into Eurovision Song Contest 2009. There is a cooperation agreement signed between the EBU and RTK and the EBU supports the membership of RTK. From 2013 on, RTK has observer status within the EBU and did participate in the Eurovision Young Dancers 2011. According to the Kosovan newspaper Koha Ditore, a possible entry would be selected via a national final called Akordet e Kosovës, a former pop show that had been taken off the air some years ago.
Lebanon (Télé Liban): Lebanon has never participated in the Eurovision Song Contest. The country’s broadcasting organization, Télé Liban, was set to make the country’s debut at the Eurovision Song Contest 2005 with the song “Quand tout s’enfuit” performed by Aline Lahoud, but withdrew due to Lebanon’s laws barring the broadcast of Israeli content.
Liechtenstein (1FLTV): Liechtenstein has never participated at the Eurovision Song Contest, but the contest has had a long history within the country, with at least one attempt to participate being made by the principality.
Liechtensteiners have had the opportunity to watch the contest on Swiss, Austrian or German television. The country has made attempts to participate in the contest in the past: in 1976 a Liechtenstein entry was selected to compete in the contest – Biggi Bachman and “Little Cowboy” would have been the country’s first entry had there been a national broadcaster, but as there was none in the country the entry was rejected from competing.
On 15 August 2008, 1FLTV, licensed by Liechtenstein’s government, became the first broadcaster based in Liechtenstein. This would allow the country to begin competing at the Eurovision Song Contest for the first time, should they decide to join the EBU, a pre-requisite for entering the contest. Shortly after its foundation however, the broadcaster announced that they were not interested in joining the EBU or Eurovision at that time because they had no budget for membership.
In July 2009, the broadcaster officially announced its intent to apply to join the EBU by the end of July, with the intent of taking part at the Eurovision Song Contest 2010, to be held in Oslo, Norway. Peter Kölbel, managing director of 1FLTV, officially confirmed the broadcaster’s interest, revealing that they had plans to develop a national final similar to Deutschland sucht den Superstar, the German version of the Idol series. In November 2009, 1FLTV decided to postpone EBU and Eurovision plans, due to financial reasons began to search for other options for funding EBU membership in the future.
1FLTV submitted its application for EBU membership on 29 July 2010. If accepted, 1FLTV would have gained full EBU membership and would have been able to send an entry to the Eurovision Song Contest 2011. However, Liechtenstein did not appear on the official list of participants for Eurovision 2011. In late 2012 it was announced by Peter Kölbel of 1FLTV that Liechtenstein would not be able to take part till 2013 at the earliest. They had been trying to get government subsidies since 2010 to enable participation, participation was likely if in April 2012 the Government approved funding.
On 10 September 2013, 1FLTV informed and confirmed to Esctoday.com that Liechtenstein would not be participating at the Eurovision Song Contest 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark. The broadcaster has no plans to join the EBU at the moment. This was confirmed again on 28 July 2014 in the run-up to the Eurovision Song Contest 2015 in Austria. 1FLTV did however state their interest in participating in the Eurovision Song Contest, but that they have to evaluate the costs of EBU membership, a necessary prelude to participation. 1FLTV confirmed that the nation will not be able to make its début in 2016, due to lack of funds to join the EBU. On 21 September 2016, 1FLTV announced that they would not be able to debut to the contest in 2017, but that they would set their eyes on a future participation once they overcome their financial hurdles. Yet again, on 1 September 2017 they also announced they would not debut at the 2018 contest in Lisbon.
On 4 November 2017 the broadcaster confirmed that it was planning to debut in the Eurovision Song Contest in 2019 and would organise a national selection to select both the singer and the song. However, on 20 July 2018, the EBU stated that 1 FL TV have not applied for membership.
Qatar (Qatar Radio): Qatar Radio (QR) is currently an associate member of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), while all competing countries of the Eurovision Song Contest must be active members of the Union. The broadcaster first revealed on 12 May 2009 that they were interested in becoming active members of the Union, which would allow the nation to compete in the Contest. Qatar Radio has stated that they hope to join Eurovision by 2011. Qatar first became involved in the Contest at the 2009 edition, where the broadcaster sent a delegation to the contest and broadcast a weekly radio show called ’12pointsqatar’ dedicated to Eurovision, which received favourable responses and has initiated the further involvement of Qatar in Eurovision. Qatar Radio has said that they feel that they would be happy to join all other competitors in the contest, including Israel if Qatar gets membership.
Qatar is required to have a broadcaster which has at least associate membership of the EBU in order to have a chance to take part, as Qatar Radio is only a radio station and Qatar lies outside the European Broadcasting Area and cannot apply for Council of Europe membership, with Australia being the only exception after being an associate member for over 30 years. The broadcaster would most likely be Qatar Television (QTV) also owned and run by the Qatar General Broadcasting and Television Corporation (QGBTC). If Qatar Radio gets accepted too, then they would be able to air the contest alongside the television broadcast.
Scotland (BBC Scotland, Scottish Broadcasting Service or STV): The Scottish National Party (SNP) has campaigned for a place in Eurovision for Scotland but had been rejected numerous times because Scotland is represented as a part of the British entry and is represented by the BBC. On 11 February 2008 the EBU stated that a Scottish broadcaster could apply for EBU membership, but under the current rules could not enter the Eurovision Song Contest as the BBC currently has exclusive rights to represent the entire United Kingdom.
Scotland would have been eligible to enter the contest had Scotland gained independence as a result of the Scottish independence referendum, 2014, as Scotland would therefore have been a separate country.
On 25 November 2013, the Scottish Government released a referendum blueprint which detailed plans for the transfer of BBC Scotland into the Scottish Broadcasting Service (SBS) and joining the EBU, as well as partaking in competitions, including Scottish entries in the Eurovision Song Contest. Had the referendum vote been favour of independence, then the earliest that Scotland would be eligible to debut would have been 2017. However, the referendum result on 18 September 2014 was to remain part of the United Kingdom, and the aforementioned BBC retains exclusive rights to represent the United Kingdom, including Scotland.
On 18 December 2018, it was announced that the Scottish branch of the BBC would debut at the Eurovision Choir of the Year in 2019 which is to be held in Gothenburg, Sweden.
Soviet Union: The Soviet Union never participated in the Eurovision Song Contest, but it made several attempts in the late 1980s. In 2009, Eduard Fomin, a former employee of the Ministry of Education of the RSFSR, revealed that in 1987 George Veselov, the Minister of Education for the Soviet Union, brought forward the idea of Soviet participation in the Eurovision Song Contest due to the number of political reforms made by the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev during the late 1980s. The idea was mainly a political one, with the thought that a win in the contest for the Soviet Union would impact on the relationships between the Soviet Union and the capitalist countries of the west. Valery Leontyev was suggested as a singer for the Soviet Union’s first entry into the contest, but Veselov’s ideas were not shared by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, or by Gorbachev himself, believing it to be too radical a step to take, and so the Soviet Union never entered the contest before dissolving. Some former republics of the Soviet Union, which were geographically situated in Europe, would later compete in the contest on their own in the 1990s and 2000s: Russia, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan, except Kazakhstan, with four of the countries going on to win one of the contests: Estonia, Latvia, Russia, and Azerbaijan. Ukraine was the first ex-USSR country to win twice.
Tunisia (RTT): Tunisia was to perform fourth in the 1977 Eurovision Song Contest’s running order. The reason for the country’s withdrawal was never officially established; rumours suggest ERTT did not want to compete with Israel. To date, the only African nation to participate in the Eurovision Song Contest is Morocco, who made just one appearance, in the 1980 contest. On 18 June 2007, the public Tunisian television broadcaster confirmed that due to a governmental request they will not participate in the contest.
Wales: In the 1960s, the late Welsh singer, scholar and writer Meredydd Evans proposed that Wales should have its own entry in the Eurovision Song Contest. In 1969, Cân i Gymru was launched by BBC Cymru Wales as a selection show for the contest, with songs to be performed in Welsh. However, it was decided that the BBC would continue to send one entry for the whole of the United Kingdom. Despite this, Cân i Gymru has been broadcast every year since, with the exception of 1973. The winning song takes part in the annual Pan Celtic Festival in Ireland. Wales has appeared as an independent country in another EBU production, Jeux Sans Frontières and Welsh national broadcaster S4C has been encouraged to take part in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest. Wales is also eligible to take part in minority language song contest Liet-Lávlut, but has so far shown no interest.
Wales participated in the inaugural Eurovision Choir of the Year in 2017, where they finished 2nd. Wales announced on 9 May 2018 that they would debut at the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2018 in Minsk, Belarus. They finished in 20th place with 29 points.
Partecipazioni mancate all’Eurovision Song Contest
Molte nazioni hanno espresso la volontà di partecipare all’Eurovision Song Contest ma per vari fattori, politici o semplicemente geografici, non possono farlo. Questa tabella mostra tutti i Paesi che vorrebbero partecipare all’Eurovision.
Alcuni paesi hanno tentato di partecipare alla manifestazione in passato ma per motivi vari non sono mai entrati in gara. Queste nazioni rappresentano le cosiddette partecipazioni mancate all’Eurovision, tra le quali si ricordano soprattutto quella del Liechtenstein, quella del Libano e quella dell’Unione Sovietica.
Anche il Kosovo o le Isole Faroe hanno tentato di partecipare, ma non essendo riconosciuti come veri e propri stati perché amministrativamente parte di altri paesi, non hanno mai partecipato. Questo è avvenuto anche per alcune regioni della Gran Bretagna (Galles e Scozia) e della Spagna (Catalogna).
Anche altre nazioni al di fuori dell’UER hanno manifestato più volte interesse a una partecipazione diretta, che però non ha mai avuto luogo per vari motivi.
Di seguito una tabella dei paesi che non hanno mai partecipato pur avendo manifestato interesse:
Legenda: In Griggio, Paesi che potrebbero formalmente debuttare; In Giallo, Paesi che avrebbero dovuto debuttare in passato ma che non hanno mai partecipato.
Liechtenstein (1 FL TV): Il Liechtenstein ha cercato di partecipare all’Eurofestival due volte: all’Eurovision Song Contest 1969 e all’Eurovision Song Contest 1976 malgrado non sia membro dell’European Broadcasting Union, requisito fondamentale per partecipare. Nel 1969 si pensa doveva essere rappresentato dalla canzone Un beau matincantata da Vetty, anche se non ci sono dei riscontri ufficiali. Certo è invece che nel 1976, Biggi Bachmann doveva cantare My Little Cowboy rappresentando il principato all’Aja, tuttavia il non appartenere all’UER non permise al principato di partecipare. Bachmann ha poi partecipato alla selezione svizzera per l’Eurovision Song Contest 1979 senza però vincere.
In seguito alla creazione della televisione nazionale, 1 FL TV, è stato ufficialmente confermato l’interesse del paese nel prendere parte alla competizione canora già a partire dall’edizione del 2010. Peter Kolbel, direttore della stazione televisiva, afferma che, nell’eventualità di una partecipazione del principato all’Eurovision Song Contest, verrà organizzata una preselezione simile a quella tedesca (Deutschland sucht den Superstar).
Il Liechtenstein ha dimostrato interesse a partecipare all’edizione 2019 in occasione della ricorrenza dei trecento anni del principato.
Libano (Télé-Liban): Il Libano fu obbligato a ritirare la propria partecipazione dall’Eurovision Song Contest 2005 dopo aver annunciato che non avrebbe trasmesso la canzone di Israele cantata da Shiri Maimon sulla propria televisione nazionale legata all’EBU. Un regolamento dell’Eurofestival dice che ogni paese partecipante è obbligato a trasmettere integralmente le serate della manifestazione.
Il Libano doveva essere rappresentato dalla cantante Aline Lahoud con la canzone Quand tout s’enfuit. La canzone era scritta da Jad Rahbani e Romeo Lahoud.
A causa di questo ritiro fuori regolamento, è circolata la voce che il Libano fosse stato bandito dalla manifestazione per tre anni e che avrebbe riacquisito il diritto a partecipare a patto che la televisione libanese trasmettesse 2 serate del festival e desse spazio alla entry israeliana; la voce è però stata smentita dalla stessa UER.
Non ci sono stati altri tentativi di partecipazione da parte del Paese.
Tunisia (1977-Oggi. ERTT): La Tunisia avrebbe già dovuto debuttare nel 1977, ma si ritirò all’ultimo momento per cause sconosciute, probabilmente perché non voleva competere con Israele.
Tuttavia quest’ultima in occasione dell’Eurovision Song Contest 2019 ha invitato a partecipare alcuni stati del Nordafrica e del Medio Oriente, tra i quali la stessa Tunisia.
Unione Sovietica (1987. CT SSSR – Televisione Centrale dell’Unione Sovietica, Центральное телевидение СССР, ЦТ СССР, Central’noe televidenie SSSR): Nel 1987, George Veselov, il ministro dell’istruzione sovietico, propose di far partecipare l’Unione Sovietica all’Eurovision Song Contest, proprio nel periodo delle riforme politiche degli anni ’80 di Michail Gorbačëv. L’idea fu soprattutto di carattere politico: l’URSS, infatti, in caso di vittoria si sarebbe riavvicinata ai Paesi capitalisti dell’Europa occidentale. L’idea però fu considerata troppo radicale e l’URSS così non partecipò mai. La prima partecipazione della Russia risale al 1994.
Kosovo (2009 ad oggi. RTK): Dal momento in cui ha dichiarato l’indipendenza, il Kosovo ha dimostrato interesse a prendere parte all’Eurovision, ma la televisione pubblica RTK non è accettata nell’UER, in quanto Paesi come la Spagna, la Russia e soprattutto la Serbia non riconoscono il Kosovo come nazione. Nel 2015, il ministro degli esteri kosovaro ha annunciato via Twitter la partecipazione della Nazione all’Eurovision Song Contest 2016, notizia poi smentita dall’UER.
Scozia (2009. BBC Scotland o STV): Il Partito Nazionale Scozzese ha più volte chiesto di mandare un rappresentante all’Eurovision, ma le proposte sono state rifiutate in quanto la Scozia è già rappresentata dal cantante del Regno Unito. L’11 febbraio 2008 l’UER ha dichiarato che un’emittente scozzese potrebbe far parte dell’organismo ma non potrebbe partecipare all’Eurovision, in quanto l’esclusiva per il Regno Unito è della BBC. La Scozia potrà partecipare solo in caso di indipendenza dal Regno Unito.
Galle (2008. S4C): La televisione di lingua gallese S4C ha espresso la volontà di far partecipare il Galles all’Eurovision. Ha inoltre espresso la volontà di partecipare al Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2008; in quella occasione non c’erano problemi, poiché il Regno Unito non aveva intenzione di partecipare, ma alla fine anche il Galles si è ritirato.
Nel 2017, il paese ha debuttato all’Eurovision Choir of the Year di Riga e nel novembre 2018 ha partecipato al Junior Eurovision Song Contest. In entrambi gli eventi, per la prima volta il paese non partecipa sotto la bandiera del Regno Unito in una manifestazione organizzata dall’UER.
Gibilterra (2006. Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation): Dal 2006 l’ente pubblico televisivo GBC ha tentato di entrare a far parte dell’UER; tuttavia, proprio come per Galles e Scozia, non essendo un paese indipendente ma parte del Regno Unito, non ha mai preso parte all’organizzazione né tantomeno alla manifestazione musicale.
Groenlandia (2011. Kalaallit Nunaata Radioa): La Groenlandia ha tentato sin dal 2011 di prendere parte all’UER e ai suoi ambiziosi eventi, come l’ESC; ma proprio come per le isole Fær Øer, parte della Danimarca, l’obiettivo non è stato mai raggiunto.
Qatar (2009 ad oggi. Qatar Radio): Ha mostrato interesse per l’edizione 2009, ma si trova completamente fuori dall’area UER.
Kazakistan (2018 ad oggi. Arna Media e Khabar Agency): Il paese euroasiatico trasmette da anni l’evento, ma non ne è mai entrato a far parte. Tuttavia l’emittente nazionale kazaka, Khabar TV, è entrato a far parte dell’UER il 1º gennaio 2016; dunque si attendono ancora notizie riguardo a un possibile debutto nella manifestazione musicale.
Il paese ha poi mostrato interesse per il Junior Eurovision Song Contest, riuscendo poi ad entrare, tramite invito poiché si tratta di un’emittente associata, nella famiglia degli eventi UER e partecipando ufficialmente al Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2018.
Isole Fær Øer (2010. Kringvarp Føroya): Dal 2010 l’arcipelago scandinavo ha tentato di entrare a far parte della manifestazione; tuttavia, non essendo indipendenti ma parte della Danimarca, l’UER non ha mai programmato una loro entrata in scena.
Cina (2015. Hunan Television): Hunan Television ha mandato in onda l’Eurovision Song Contest durante l’edizione 2015 di Vienna e aveva confermato l’interessamento della partecipazione della Cina riguardo all’edizione 2016. L’UER inizialmente aveva risposto che l’entrata in scena di paesi così lontani dall’Europa (come l’Australia) poteva essere una grande possibilità di apertura per la manifestazione, sempre arricchita di nuovi elementi; tuttavia il 3 giugno 2015, l’UER ha rifiutato ogni possibilità, ma con molta probabilità il paese potrà debuttare all’Eurovision Asia Song Contest, versione asiatica della kermesse.
Catalonia (TV3 (TVC)):
Paesi non più esistenti ma che hanno partecipato: All’Eurovision, hanno partecipato anche paesi o federazioni che poi però si sono disgregati e paesi con forme di governo e denominazioni che sono mutate col tempo. Questi sono i casi, ad esempio, della Rep. Socialista Federale di Jugoslavia e della Rep. Federale di Jugoslavia, definitivamente scomparse nel 1991 e 2003 e il caso della Serbia e Montenegro, che è rimasta con questa denominazione solo fino al 2006; o ancora della Germania, che fino al 1989 era divisa in due Repubbliche diverse: